The lead from the uranium-rich ore had an average atomic mass of 206.08 compared to 207.69 for the lead from the thorium-rich ore, thus verifying Soddy’s conclusion.The unambiguous confirmation of isotopes in stable elements not associated directly with either uranium or thorium followed a few years later with the development of the Francis William Aston. Thomson, Aston had learned that the gaseous element neon produced two positive rays.Not all the atoms of an element need have the same number of neutrons in their nuclei. Three nuclei with one proton are known that contain 0, 1, and 2 neutrons, respectively. Wapstra, "The 1995 Update to Atomic Mass Evaluation," Nuclear Physics A595, 409–480 (1995). Similarly, mesothorium was shown to be chemically indistinguishable from radium.In fact, it is precisely the variation in the number of neutrons in the nuclei of atoms that gives rise to isotopes. The three share the place in the periodic table assigned to atomic number 1 and hence are called isotopes (from the Greek Sources: G. As chemists used the criterion of chemical indistinguishability as part of the definition of an element, they were forced to conclude that ionium and mesothorium were not new elements after all, but rather new forms of old ones.The actual masses of all the stable isotopes differ appreciably from the sums of their individual particle masses.For example, the isotope C, which has a particularly stable nucleus, has an atomic mass defined to be exactly 12 amu.
On the other hand, theory helps justify, at least qualitatively, the mathematical form of each term.
Isotopes are said to be stable if, when left alone, they show no perceptible tendency to change spontaneously.
Under the proper conditions, however, say in a nuclear reactor or particle accelerator or in the interior of a star, even stable isotopes may be transformed, one into another.
Generalizing from these and other data, English chemist Frederick Soddy in 1910 observed that “elements of different atomic weights [now called atomic masses] may possess identical (chemical) properties” and so belong in the same place in the periodic table.
With considerable prescience, he extended the scope of his conclusion to include not only radioactive species but stable elements as well.