In this case, there are more than 5,000 ethnic groups in the world, according to a 1998 study published in the Scientific American. When some people use the “race” they attach a biological meaning, still others use “race” as a socially constructed concept. .”biological race,” I mean the view of race espoused by Judge Tucker, and still popular today, that there exist natural, physical divisions among humans that are hereditary, reflected in morphology, and roughly but correctly captured by terms like Black, White, and Asian (or Negroid, Caucasoid, and Mongoloid). Despite the prevalent belief in biological races, overwhelming evidence proves that race is not biological.
It is clear that even though race does not have a biological meaning, it does have a social meaning which has been legally constructed. Under this view, one’s ancestors and epidermis ineluctably determine membership in a genetically defined racial group. Biological races like Negroid and Caucasoid simply do not exist.
Hindu apologists consider the Manusmriti as the divine code of conduct and, accordingly, the status of women as depicted in the text has been interpreted as Hindu divine law. Since carnal desire is always strong, it can lead to temptation.
While defending Manusmriti as divine code of conduct for all including women, apologists often quote the verse: , but they deliberately forget all those verses that are full of prejudice, hatred and discrimination against women. Women, true to their class character, are capable of leading astray men in this world, not only a fool but even a learned and wise man.
A human race is defined as a group of people with certain common inherited features that distinguish them from other groups of people.
All men of whatever race are currently classified by the anthropologist or biologist as belonging to the one species, Homo sapiens.
Forehead most often high, little supraobital development.
Face: Leproscopic (to a much lesser degree than the Caucasion), Prognathism common in most Negro populations.
Under this thinking, if there is no natural link between faces and races, then no connection exists. I define a “race” as a vast group of people loosely bound together by historically contingent, socially significant elements of their morphology and/or ancestry.Ethnographic division into races from Meyers Konversationslexikon of 1885-90 is listing: Caucasion: Skull: Dolicephalic(Long-Head), High forehead, Little supraobital development.Face: Mainly Leptoproscopic( Narrow)Sometimes Meso- or even Euryproscopic, Neither Facial nor alveolar prognathism occurs except among some archaic peoples. Mongoloid: Skull: High incidence of Brachycephaly(Short Round Head) American Indians while Mongoloid are often Dolicephalic.However, differentiation is a function of separation, usually geographic, and occurs in gradations rather than across fractures.. Along the way, various minds tried to fashion practical human typologies along the following physical axes: skin color, hair texture, facial angle, jaw size, cranial capacity, brain mass, frontal lobe mass, brain surface fissures and convolutions, and even body lice. Attempts to define racial categories by physical attributes ultimately failed. Congress’ anachronistic understanding of race is exemplified by a 1988 statute that explains that “the term ‘racial group’ means a set of individuals whose identity as such is distinctive in terms of physical characteristics or biological descent.” The Supreme Court, although purporting to sever race from biology, also seems incapable of doing so. Al-Khazraji, the Court determined that an Arab could recover damages for racial discrimination under 42 U. As one scholar notes, “[t]he nineteenth century was a period of exhaustive and–as it turned out–futile search for criteria to define and describe race differences.”. By 1871, some leading intellectuals had recognized that even using the word “race” “was virtually a confession of ignorance or evil intent.” The genetic studies of the last few decades have only added more nails to the coffin of biological race. The rejection of race in science is now almost complete. Unfortunately, few in this society seem prepared to fully relinquish their subscription to notions of biological race..